The potential of chatbots in travel and tourism services in the context of social distancing : Focus on Habit

As many other sectors, the travel and tourism industries faced great challenges following the Covid-19 pandemic, with confinements and border closures bringing travel to a halt. In this regard, the purpose of our research was to examine tourists’ chatbot usage intentions in service encounters within the context of a future international travel, assuming continued social distancing. Our results indicate that automation, habit, social presence and health consciousness all contributed positively to chatbot usage intentions (see Fig. 1).

Fig. 1 : Proposed model by Hasan, Koles, Zaman & Paul (2021)

Our results highlight that the habit of using such services (e.g., messaging apps, etc.) strongly influences the chatbots use intention, and it is even more significant when tourists have experienced a lockdown. During the lockdown, most of the people were working from home and they were forced to use/adopt new communication tools (e.g., Zoom, Teams, etc.). Therefore, our research underlines that these habits are going to stay and tourists will prefer to use chatbots.

According to Statista (2021), more than 2 billion people are using WhatsApp and 1.3 billon are using Facebook Messenger every month (see Fig. 2). As people are already habituated to messaging apps, they would like to talk to chatbots. Therefore, the chatbots could be an
effective communication and service delivery tool for the service providers.

Fig. 2 : Most popular global mobile messenger apps as of July 2021, based on number of monthly active users (Source: Statista, 2021)

Do we have some evidences from the travel and tourism industry ?

Yes. We do ! Skyscanner (leading flight comparison website and online travel agency), which was one of the early adopters of chatbots in travel industry, affirmed that 69% of the customers preferred chatbots for quick communication with the brand and in February 2018, Skyscanner recorded more than 1 million customer interactions via their chatbot. KLM (Dutch Airline Group) also saw a 40% increase of customer interactions through its Facebook Messenger channel. In an earlier study, Oracle highlighted that 80% of the business would have integrated chatbots by 2020.

The Covid-19 has certainly changed the customer beahviour and their way of travelling. Service firms should explore these opportunities in order to enhance the customer experience.

Our original research on this topic : Hasan, R., Koles, B., Zaman, M. and Paul, J. (2021). The potential of chatbots in travel and tourism services in the context of social distancing. International Journal of Technology Intelligence and Planning, 13(1), 63–83.

What’s going on with Facebook after the outage and whistle-blowing?

I did a Twitter analysis based on recent 6000 tweets. The text-mining results are provided below-

It appears from the following word cloud that it is not only the outage impacting this brand but also the whistleblower is impacting this brand image of Facebook.

Outage and whistleblowing impact on Facebook

From my analysis, I found that people are expressing surprise-type feelings related to Facebook on their tweets.

We can see from the following word cloud, these surprise feelings are related to WhatsApp, Instagram, Facebook, outage, and whistleblower.

Surprise Feelings related to Facebook

What shapes of robots are preferred by consumers in hospitality services?

From one of our research, we found that nonphysical robots, like artificial intelligence in smartphones (Please see photo 6 below), are the most easily identified and preferred shape (mean: 3.65). We can also see from the following pictures and statistics that trash bins (photo 2) or tray robots (photo 4) (mean: 3.49; 3.47, respectively) are also preferred by consumers in the hospitality industry. An interesting point is that Human-looking robots
(photo 1) appeared only one from the lowest preferred (mean: 3.35). It may be because it scares consumers and it requires more research to be done in the future to understand this situation. The spider shape robot was the lowest preferred (mean: 2.31) robot (photo 5) and it lacked hospitality service application.

In conclusion, we can say that human shape robots may not be preferred always in the service sector. Consumers may like nonphysical shape robots because they may provide consumers a sense of control instead of getting scared looking at their scary shapes such as spider robots.

To know more about this research, please visit our following published research in a TOP journal –

de Kervenoael R.;Hasan R.;Schwob A.;Goh E. (2020) ‘Leveraging human-robot interaction in hospitality services: Incorporating the role of perceived value, empathy, and information sharing into visitors’ intentions to use social robots’. Tourism Management, 78 [DOI][Details]

3 important tips to consider for your Influencer Marketing

The following three tips are based on our published research in a book chapter. The chapter details are provided later.

Tip 1:

The number of followers of influencers is overrated. Businesses need to understand that Number of followers is not the only factor defining an influencer. Micro-influencers with fewer followers may lead to higher sales than established influencers because consumers are well aware of the difference between sponsored and organic content.

Tip 2:

Consumers notice when an expert in the industry shares an opinion, even if this expert does not have a large popular following across social media platforms. Therefore, businesses need to consider using experts for their influencer marketing.

Tip 3:

Brands that engage an influencer who is not well-matched with the brand image can cause more damage than brands realize. So, it is very important for businesses to match the influencer with their brand.

To know more about these tips, please read my following published chapter-

Hasan, Rajibul; Billa, Malvika (2021) ‘Influencers’ Impact on Business Model Innovation in the Luxury Personal Goods Industry’ In Business Model Innovation. United Kingdom: Routledge. [DOI][Details]

Social Influences on Social Media and Its Influence on Consumer Behaviors.

Through social media, consumers can interact with Key Opinion Leader (KOL), publish
User-Generated Content (UGC), and view products recommended by their network.

Key Opinion Leaders (KOL) on social media can influence a consumer’s purchasing decision process, the network community is an essential means of improving the learners’ cognitive level, and the learners’ implicit knowledge plays an essential role in this cognitive process.

Understanding these social media attributes and their influence on
consumers can help marketers better comprehend
social media’s influence on consumer behavior and adapt their
strategies to attract consumers. The following Figure demonstrates Social Influences on Social Media and Its Influence on Consumer Behaviors.

Social Influences on Social Media and Its Influence on Consumer

To know more details, please visit my following research publication-

Hasan, Rajibul; Teng, Yulin; Shams, Riad (2021) ‘The Impact of Social Media on Business Model Innovation’ In: Business Model Innovation. United Kingdom: Routledge. [DOI][Details]

Text mining the tweets to understand peoples’ feelings towards a brand (Example: Ben & Jerry’s)

Is it possible to Text mine the tweets to understand peoples’ feelings towards a brand?

Yes, it is possible to understand what type of feelings people are expressing regarding any brand from the tweets of Twitter. I am going to demonstrate the example of Ben & Jerry’s below.

We have collected 6000 tweets from Twitter that use the keyword Ben & Jerry’s. the following picture is the word cloud result ( larger font size represents words more frequently used in this word cloud), which shows us what people are talking about Ben & Jerry’s.

Word Cloud of Ben & Jerry’s

We are going to demonstrate in the following picture what type of feelings consumers are expressing on Twitter related to Ben & Jerry’s.

People’s Feelings related to Ben & Jerry’s

From the above results of text mining, we can understand that people are expressing more joy and surprise feelings related to Ben & Jerry’s brand and it represents a good reputation for the brand.

Text Mining can be used to monitor social media

Measuring public opinion was always about extrapolating from surveys and hoping the small sample you selected was representative of the general public. Today, individual public opinion is ripe for the taking on Facebook, YouTube, Instagram, Twitter, Reddit, WhatsApp, and whatever new product review or augmented-reality platform pops up next.

With the advancement of Artificial Intelligence, we can now analyze texts using different types of software.

For one of my research projects, We have analyzed 40,000 Amazon Reviews of Smart Wearable Devices like Fit Bit, Samsung Gear 2, and 3. The Following output provides us an idea, what people are talking about your brands or products. It may be difficult to go through 40,000 reviews because of a large volume of unstructured data. With the help of Automatic Content Analysis, you can easily understand what is important to your customers.

Why “Long-tail Keywords” are important for your Website?

Long-tail Keywords usually represent 80% of all traffics of a Website. They help companies to attract qualified audience (people who are exactly looking for your product/service). In addition, the competition is often low for these keywords and companies will have a better ROI.

Copyright : MustafeedZaman

Deep Learning can be used to Investigate the Digital Behaviour of consumers

A picture can tell thousands of words. Can we analyze images posted on social media and review platforms? Yes, we can. With the advancement of the Artificial Intelligence area, researchers can use deep learning to understand images. We have used deep learning to Investigate the Digital Behaviour of consumers.

In this research, 4,000 photos of nine Chinese restaurants posted on Tripadvisor’s website were analyzed using image recognition via Inception V3 and Google’s deep learning network; this revealed 12 hierarchical image clusters. Two examples of these clusters are provided below-

Cluster Name: Atmospheric cluster
This cluster of images is generated through the help of deep learning.

Cluster Name: Decorations using lamps in Restaurants
This cluster of images is generated through the help of deep learning.

The above clusters provided us an idea of what type contents consumers are posting on social media. These will also help restaurants to formulate different strategies such as improving the atmospheric environment and decorating using lamps. Competitors can also learn about their competitors by analyzing the images posted by consumers on online platforms.

To know more about this research, please read my following article-

Hasan, M.R.Abdunurova, A.Wang, W.Zheng, J. and Shams, S.M.R. (2021), “Using deep learning to investigate digital behavior in culinary tourism”, Journal of Place Management and Development, Vol. 14 No. 1, pp. 43-65.

Pre-Purchasing and Post- Purchasing Travel Behavior of Consumers on Social Media-Tools for your Social Media Strategies

The following Figures represent consumers’ travel behavior on Social Media (SM). This can be used as a tool to formulate your social media strategies.

To know more details, read my following co-authored article-

ABDUNUROVA, A., USPANOVA, M., HASAN, R., SURAPBERGENOVA, Z., & KUDAIBERGENOV, N. (2020). Pre-Purchasing and Post-Purchasing Travel Behavior on Social Media: The Case of Kazakhstan. Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism, 11(6), 1475-1488.